1. Define distinction of methods of understanding and an explanation. What is a hermeneutical circle. Определить различия методов понимания и объяснения. Что такое герменевтический круг.
2. Disclose ideas of Hans—GeorgGadamer’s about a ratio of a philosophical hermeneutics and the humanities. Раскрывать идеи Ганса—GeorgGadamer о соотношении философской герменевтики и гуманитарных наук.
According to Gadamer, philosophical hermeneutics is not addressing the issue of the method by which it would be possible to carry out more «correct» interpretation. It basically goes beyond this concept. Gadamer, rather, trying to describe the transcendental knowledge of the elements that defy comprehension methodical, but immanent in the entire experience, and each scientific methodology.
In essence, the hermeneutics that develops Gadamer, is the development of phenomenology, namely — descriptive phenomenology. She tries to understand what precedes all science, and raises the question of the Kantian type, a philosophical question about the conditions of possibility of all knowledge. In this respect, philosophical hermeneutics and philosophy aims to be «to describe what is.»Based on the experience of art, history and language, Gadamer has shown the limitations of the use of the concepts of the object and objectivity. The concepts of object and objectivity is not enough where it is not about mastering the subject, but on the return of the sense of belonging, which is called the understanding. The interpreter is to understand the object, starting from their own experience, moving the object in its own spiritual horizon. The interpreter can not abstract their own subjectivity.Thus, the process of understanding can not be separated from understanding the subject, but the object can not be adequately understood without a subject.Gadamer captures not only the interpretation of the historicity of the object, but also the historicity of the interpreter. So it develops and deepens the idea of Heidegger’s «abandonment» of man in the world.
The interpretation is necessarily effective, and point of view of the interpreter, therefore, the activities related to historical circumstances is always related activities with both the theoretical and the actual terms of such a venture. Reflection on the conditions of both theoretical and historical awareness of their own predetermined point of view becomes, thus, a necessary part of exploring the historical phenomenon.From the point of view of philosophical hermeneutics, the interpreter’s position is already set certain settings that Gadamer calls anticipation. In other words, the interpreter is a part, a fragment that he interprets. It is part of the whole. Our knowledge depends on the historically conditioned assumptions. Understanding is possible only in the perception of the whole, on the basis of which only become apparent the corresponding manifestation of the human spirit. But these conditions have a subjective character. You can label them in a special way as «prejudice» or specify only the undeniable fact that our thinking and the will of our questions and understanding are distinct historical character.
3. Define the subject and object of scientific research. Определить предмет и объект научного исследования.
4. Describe a preparatory stage of scientific research. Опишите подготовительный этап научного исследования.
5. Describe a research stage of scientific investigation.
6. Describe structure and ways of execution of the scientific article. Описать структуру и способы оформления научной статьи.
Scientific Study on — is targeted knowledge, the results of which appear in the form of a system of concepts, laws and theories.
Stages of scientific research. Any particular study may be represented as a series of steps.
1. Selection of the research topic.
2. Definition of the object and subject of study.
3. Definition of goals and objectives.
4. Formulation of the title of the work.
5. Develop a hypothesis.
6. Drawing up a research plan.
7. Work with the literature.
8. The choice of research methods.
9. Organization of the conditions of the study.
10. Study (collection material).
11. Processing of the results of the study.
12. The formulation of conclusions.
13. Execution of work.
Each stage has its own problems that are solved are often successively, and sometimes simultaneously.Scientific research always involves solving a scientific problem. Lack of knowledge of the facts, contradictory scientific concepts create a base for scientific research. Statement of scientific problem involves:
— Detection of the existence of such deficit;
— Awareness of the need to eliminate the deficit;
— Formulation of the problem.It is preferable to investigate the problems in which a person is more competent and which are connected with his practical activities (sports, educational, organizational, teaching or coaching). However, the intended subject is necessary to evaluate in terms of the possibility of the experiment, i.e. the availability of a sufficient number of subjects to form the experimental groups (intervention and control), research ap¬paratury, the creation of appropriate conditions for teaching and educational process in eksperimental¬noy group, etc.Help in choosing a topic can have directory browsing defended dissertations, review of publications in a special scientific and methodical perio-dike.The topic must be relevant, ie useful to meet the academic, social, technological and economic needs of society\
Define the concepts «information» and «scientific information». Определения понятия «информация» и «научная информация».
Describe how to work with information sources. What is universal decimal classification. Описано, как работать с источниками информации. Что является универсальной десятичной классификации.
ACCUMULATION OF INFORMATION AND SEARCH. Information is one of the basic needs of modern man; it is necessary to work, travel, purchase of goods, decision-making, implementation of school work, care for the health and many other activities. The human brain is endowed with amazing efficiency against storage and retrieval of information. However, in the 20th century. information accumulated by mankind such a pace that no special technical means to man, and even the organization is becoming increasingly difficult to cope with the search for the necessary data.
storage and retrieval systems collect, analyze, organize, store, find and distribute information. Traditionally, much of the existing information was recorded on paper accumulating in libraries and information centers and search manually. Since the mid-1960s for the automatic storage and retrieval of information started to use a variety of mechanical and electronic aids. These systems can handle hundreds of millions of pieces of information and search for individual items almost instantly.
Computer and electronic means of communication make up the core of modern storage systems and information retrieval. For example, through a desktop computer or other terminal can be obtained by phone access to the local file or remote data center and automatically find relevant information. Activities that require the use of paper, such as reading newspapers, writing letters and banking, will eventually be replaced by their electronic equivalents.
There are three basic types of information systems: a database management system, search engine, bibliographic references, and challenge-response system.
In principle, a request for information could be compared with the contents of the file and to identify the best fit. In practice, however, as the content of the request and the stored items of information must first be more clearly defined. Thus, in the management of database content of each record is evaluated according to some scale of values; in reference document retrieval system represented by a set of terms, each of which has a value (weight) depending on the importance of the term in a document.